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夏日傳染病異常流行!醫:炎熱溫度降低免疫力,最佳溫度曝

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入夏天氣炎熱,整合醫療科姜冠宇醫師竟提醒,因免疫力降低傳染病將在夏季進入高峰,其中包包含呼吸道融合病毒(RSV)、流感、新冠病毒,甚至黴漿菌也可能悄悄回歸。過往冠病毒等呼吸道傳染疾病多好發於秋冬,而今卻反常在夏天流行,原因為何?


炎熱降低免疫力!


整合醫療科姜冠宇醫師指出,環境溫度上升會影響免疫系統,特別是B細胞降低。B細胞又稱作B淋巴球(B lymphocyte),可以產生抗體,B細胞降低會導致人體對病毒的適應能力下降。


免疫反應上升,感染後症狀恐更嚴重


整合醫療科姜冠宇醫師在醫院臨床第一線觀察發現,今年夏天不只COVID-19、流感等呼吸道傳染病個案增加,就連因蜂窩性組織炎就醫住院的案例也不在話下,不只老人,年輕人也出現下肢或關節化膿、鼠蹊部腫大等個案。未來全球氣候變遷可能改變傳染病的分佈,居住設施需能調節室溫至舒適範圍,以減少環境破壞,維護健康。


1.熱氣候指數(UCTI)


美國心臟協會今年3月在芝加哥發表的研究指出,UTCI熱氣候指數每上升5度,相當於攝氏上升兩2~3度,會影響免疫系統。超過攝氏46度屬「極端熱度」,而攝氏32至38度則屬「強烈熱度」。


夏日傳染病異常流行!醫:炎熱溫度降低免疫力,最佳溫度曝

2.B細胞降低、其他免疫上升


人體在高濕度環境中,B細胞會降低6.8%,導致對病毒的適應能力下降,可能引發「熱炎症」,也就是說高溫下,心臟血管容易發炎,增加血管粥狀硬化的風險。伴隨其他免疫反應出現上升趨勢,整合醫療科姜冠宇醫師提醒,這並不代表免疫力變好,而是感染後症狀更嚴重!


3.全球氣候變遷影響與體溫調節


整合醫療科姜冠宇醫師說明,未來居住設施需能調節室溫至舒適範圍,對健康影響重大。在炎熱環境中,人體若無法調節體溫至舒適範圍(26~28度),免疫力可能會變弱。根據日本建議,每60分鐘為一個循環,帶在市內冷氣房中每50分鐘應離開10分鐘到戶外活動、調節體溫,因為冷氣房屬於密閉空間,如果長達3、4小時以上都待在冷氣房,恐影響支氣管鞭毛的排痰功能,增加感染病毒、細菌的風險。


姜醫師點出,未來全球氣候變遷也可能改變傳染病的分佈,因為微生物適應環境溫度的速度比人類快,未來要小心傳染病可能愈來愈「不按牌理出牌」。(延伸閱讀:急診永遠塞爆?分級醫療呼聲再起:居家醫療、智慧醫療是最終解


夏日傳染病異常流行!醫:炎熱溫度降低免疫力,最佳溫度曝

此外,氣候變遷下也不能忘記保護環境,需減少環境破壞,以維護健康,應努力追求碳中和,保護環境也是保護自己。



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參考資料:


  1. UTCI Heat Climate Index: Increases in the index impact immune responses.

  2. B Cell Reduction: High humidity decreases B cells by 6.8%, lowering virus adaptability.

  3. Increased Immune Response: More severe symptoms post-infection, not increased immunity.

  4. Temperature Regulation: Immune strength weakens if body temperature isn't kept between 26-28°C.

  5. Global Climate Change: Altering disease distribution as microbes adapt faster than humans.

  6. Home Temperature Control: Future homes must maintain comfortable temperatures to safeguard health.

  7. Environmental Preservation: Reducing environmental damage is crucial for health amid climate change.

 


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